Received: 2022-08-15  |  Accepted: 2022-10-20  |  Published: 2022-12-30

Title

Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) "Egyptian case study"


Abstract

The women representation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in Egypt is spanning hundreds and even thousands of years back. Yet, there is efforts needed to show women's contributions in recent history and current time. This paper highlights the role of women in STEM and their role as main partners in the science, technology and innovation system, participation of women in science for both decision-making and the scientific community. The survey has been designed to look at and support the participation and progression of women in STEM professionals and to encourage more girls and women to continue their studies and practical life in the STEM Fields. Literature, and particularly analytical literature, available around women in STEM in Egypt is limited; it is often tackled within the scope of women's employment, women's economic empowerment, or education. The paper reviews many challenges faced by women in science, technology and engineering and mathematics but from a practical point of view, where the questions are designed to reflect the scientific and leadership background as well as entrepreneurship and the relationship with the industry and to identify the obstacles that women face in being a business leader and the obstacles that women face in dealing with industry. Through the case study we unpack and examine the multiple thresholds of women and girls in higher education and employment in STEM fields in Egypt. The case study sample shows that while women are engaging in STEM at the tertiary education level, it is the integration into the labor force which makes it difficult for there to be a more equitable distribution of women across all STEM-related sectors. Egypt has a strong tradition of female empowerment and development but remains patriarchal in many aspects of progress and opportunity; the number of women in STEM education does not translate to those in the work force.


Keywords

women, STEM, Egypt, STEM survey, entrepreneurship


JEL classifications

Q20 , Q25


URI

http://jssidoi.org/ird/article/115


DOI


HAL


Pages

52-62


Funding

EU-funded WomenUP project ENI/2017/394-091

This is an open access issue and all published articles are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Authors

Rezk, Mohamed Ramadan A.
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt http://www.asrt.sci.eg
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Shafai, Breyhan
British Council, Cairo, Egypt https://www.britishcouncil.org.eg
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Piccinetti, Leonardo
Europe for Business, Ltd, Warrington, United Kingdom https://www.e4business.eu
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Salem, Nahed
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt http://www.asrt.sci.eg
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

ElBanna, Shaimaa
British Council, Cairo, Egypt https://www.britishcouncil.org.eg
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Radwan, Amr
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt http://www.asrt.sci.eg
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Sakr, Mahmoud M.
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt http://www.asrt.sci.eg
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Journal title

Insights into Regional Development

Volume

4


Number

4


Issue date

December 2022


Issue DOI


ISSN

ISSN 2345-0282 (online)


Publisher

VšĮ Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, Vilnius, Lithuania

Cited

Google Scholar

Article views & downloads

HTML views: 1547  |  PDF downloads: 367

References


Abdulaal, M., 2018. Egyptian Women in the Workforce: Then and Now. Egyptian Streets. Retrieved from: https://egyptianstreets.com/2018/10/16/an-evolution-of-the-working-egyptian-woman/

Search via ReFindit


Abuwatfa, W., Zamel, N., Al-Othman, A., 2021. Lessons learned from the underrepresentation of women in STEM: AI-enabled solutions and more. Energy and AI 5, 100086. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyai.2021.100086

Search via ReFindit


British Council, 2021.Women in STEM in Egypt Case Study. Egypt. Published by British Council. Retrieved from: https://www.britishcouncil.org.eg/sites/default/files/british_council_booklet_spreads_-_2021.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Canaan, S., Mouganie, P., 2019. Female Science Advisors and the STEM Gender Gap. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3396119

Search via ReFindit


CAPMAS (Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics), 2018. Annual Bulletin of employment, wages and working hours statistics 2017. Cairo, Egypt. Retrieved from: https://www.capmas.gov.eg/Pages/Publications.aspx?page_id=5104&YearID=23462

Search via ReFindit


Cardella, G.M., Hernández-Sánchez, B.R., Sánchez-García, J.C., 2020. Women Entrepreneurship: A Systematic Review to Outline the Boundaries of Scientific Literature. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01557

Search via ReFindit


Ceci, S.J., Williams, W.M., 2011. Understanding current causes of women's underrepresentation in science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 3157-3162. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014871108

Search via ReFindit


Charlesworth, T.E., Banaji, M.R., 2019. Gender in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Issues, Causes, Solutions. The Journal of Neuroscience, 39, 7228-7243. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0475-18.2019

Search via ReFindit


Darwish, S., Alzayed, S. and Ahmed, U., 2020. How Women in Science can Boost Women's Entrepreneurship: Review and Highlights. International Journal of Innovation Creativity and Change, 14(1), 453-470. https://www.ijicc.net/images/Vol_14/Iss_1/14145_Darwish_2020_E_R.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Dasgupta, N., Stout, J.G., 2014. Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 21–29. https://doi.org/10.1177/2372732214549471

Search via ReFindit


Duffy, M.K., Ganster, D.C., Pagon, M., 2002. Social Undermining in the Workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 331-351. https://doi.org/10.5465/3069350

Search via ReFindit


Egyptian Constitution. 2014 at: https://www.sis.gov.eg/newvr/theconistitution.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Fouad, N.A., Singh, R., Cappaert, K., Chang, W.H., Wan, M., 2016. Comparison of women engineers who persist in or depart from engineering. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 92, 79-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2015.11.002

Search via ReFindit


Hechavarria, D., Bullough, A., Brush, C., Edelman, L., 2018. High-Growth Women's Entrepreneurship: Fueling Social and Economic Development. Journal of Small Business Management, 57, 5-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12503

Search via ReFindit


Herrmann, S.D., Adelman, R.M., Bodford, J.E., Graudejus, O., Okun, M.A., Kwan, V.S.Y., 2016. The Effects of a Female Role Model on Academic Performance and Persistence of Women in STEM Courses. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 38, 258-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2016.1209757

Search via ReFindit


Huang, J., Gates, A.J., Sinatra, R., Barabási, A.L., 2020. Historical comparison of gender inequality in scientific careers across countries and disciplines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117, 4609-4616. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1914221117

Search via ReFindit


Jiang, X., 2021. Women in STEM: Ability, preference, and value. Labour Economics, 70, 101991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2021.101991

Search via ReFindit


Kelley, D. J., Baumer, B. S., Brush, C., Green, P. G., Mahdavi, M., Majbouri, M., et al. (2017). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2018/2017 Report on Women's Entrepreneurship. Babson College: Smith College and the Global Entrepreneurship Research Association. https://scholarworks.smith.edu/conway_research/1/

Search via ReFindit


Keune, A., Peppler, K.A., Wohlwend, K.E., 2019. Recognition in makerspaces: Supporting opportunities for women to “make” a STEM career. Computers in Human Behavior, 99, 368-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.05.013

Search via ReFindit


Khalil, R., Moustafa, A.A., Moftah, M.Z., Karim, A.A., 2017. How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today's Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology? Frontiers in Psychology, 07. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02053

Search via ReFindit


Langowitz, N., Minniti, M., 2007. The Entrepreneurial Propensity of Women. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31, 341-364. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00177.x

Search via ReFindit


Lincoln, A.E., Pincus, S., Koster, J.B., Leboy, P.S., 2012. The Matilda Effect in science: Awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s. Social Studies of Science, 42, 307-320. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312711435830

Search via ReFindit


Mansour, H., Rees, D.I., Rintala, B.M., Wozny, N.N., 2021. The Effects of Professor Gender on the Postgraduation Outcomes of Female Students. ILR Review, 75, 693-715. https://doi.org/10.1177/0019793921994832

Search via ReFindit


Noguera, M., Alvarez, C., Urbano, D., 2013. Socio-cultural factors and female entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9, 183-197. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-013-0251-x

Search via ReFindit


Sarseke, G., 2017. Under-Representation of Women in Science: From Educational, Feminist and Scientific Views. NASPA Journal about Women in Higher Education, 11, 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1080/19407882.2017.1380049

Search via ReFindit


Saxena, M., Geiselman, T.A., Zhang, S., 2019. Workplace incivility against women in STEM: Insights and best practices. Business Horizons, 62, 589-594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2019.05.005

Search via ReFindit


UIS-UNESCO, Fact Sheet No. 55 June 2019 FS/2019/SCI/55. Retrieved from: http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/fs55-women-in-science-2019-en.pdf

Search via ReFindit


UN Women, 2020. Women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the Latin America and the Caribbean region Retrieved from: https://lac.unwomen.org/en/digiteca/publicaciones/2020/09/mujeres-en-ciencia-tecnologia-ingenieria-y-matematicas-en-america-latina-y-el-caribe

Search via ReFindit


Wang, M.T., Degol, J.L., 2016. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions. Educational Psychology Review, 29, 119–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9355-x

Search via ReFindit