ESC

Clarivate

JCR Category: Business in ESCI edition

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues Open access
Journal Impact FactorTM (2023) 1.2 Q4
Journal Citation IndicatorTM (2023) 0.33 Q3
Received: 2021-10-18  |  Accepted: 2022-01-17  |  Published: 2022-03-30

Title

Developing a new model of ethical leadership


Abstract

Previous studies in Middle East countries missed to find out the influence of ethical leadership on counterproductive workplace behaviors in higher education. Therefore, this study was carried out to close the gap in this regard, as it is meant to be used in the education sector, one of Saudi Arabia's most significant service sectors. The human relations theory of management concept was utilized to build a theoretical model of ethical leadership and a management paradigm based on human relationships. Personal attributes, administrative qualities, human relationships, teamwork, and relationships with managers and colleagues were revealed as key elements in the hypotheses of the research model. The data gathering method was a questionnaire survey based on the human relations theory of management. SPSS and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM-PLS) were used to examine the data. The findings revealed a positive effect between personal attributes and teamwork factors, which all have positive effects on administrative qualities and human relationships. Administrative qualities and human relationships had a positive impact on relationships with managers and colleagues too. Therefore, this finding contributes to the validation of the extended human relations theory of management by demonstrating that the model predicts university employees improving relationships with managers and colleagues through personal attributes, administrative qualities, human relationships, and teamwork.


Keywords

ethical leadership, human relations theory of management, structural equation modeling, Middle East countries, higher education


JEL classifications

O35 , O15


URI

http://jssidoi.org/jesi/article/944


DOI


Pages

198-211


Funding

The author would like to thank Deanship of Scientific Research at Majmaah University for supporting this work under Project Number No. R-2022-11

This is an open access issue and all published articles are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Authors

Zahrani, Aida Ahmed
Majmaah University, Al Majma'ah, Saudi Arabia https://www.mu.edu.sa
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Journal title

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues

Volume

9


Number

3


Issue date

March 2022


Issue DOI


ISSN

ISSN 2345-0282 (online)


Publisher

VšĮ Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, Vilnius, Lithuania

Cited

Google Scholar

Article views & downloads

HTML views: 2831  |  PDF downloads: 969

References


Almaaitah, M., Alsafadi, Y., Altahat, S., & Yousfi, A. (2020). The effect of talent management on organizational performance improvement: The mediating role of organizational commitment. Management Science Letters, 10(12), 2937-2944. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.4.012

Search via ReFindit


Alotaibi, S.M., Amin, M. & Winterton, J. (2020). Does emotional intelligence and empowering leadership affect psychological empowerment and work engagement? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 41(8), 971-991. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-07-2020-0313

Search via ReFindit


Andrade, M., & Zeigner, S. (2021). Team ePortfolios in Management Education: Insights into Students' Skill Development. e-Journal of Business Education and Scholarship of Teaching, 15(1), 40-54. https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Team+ePortfolios+in+Management+Education%3A+Insights+into+Students%27...-a0677088454

Search via ReFindit


Anser, M. K., Ali, M., Usman, M., Rana, M. L. T., & Yousaf, Z. (2021). Ethical leadership and knowledge hiding: an intervening and interactional analysis. The Service Industries Journal, 41(5-6), 307-329. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2020.1739657

Search via ReFindit


Arici, H. E., Arici, N. C., Köseoglu, M. A., & King, B. E. M. (2021). Leadership research in the root of hospitality scholarship: 1960–2020. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 99, 103063. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2021.103063

Search via ReFindit


Ashfaq, F., Abid, G., & Ilyas, S. (2021). Impact of Ethical Leadership on Employee Engagement: Role of Self-Efficacy and Organizational Commitment. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 11(3), 962-974. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030071

Search via ReFindit


Bashan, B., & Holsblat, R. (2017). Reflective journals as a research tool: The case of student teachers’ development of teamwork. Cogent Education, 4(1), 1374234. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186x.2017.1374234

Search via ReFindit


Buonomo, I., Farnese, M. L., Vecina, M. L., & Benevene, P. (2021). Other-Focused Approach to Teaching. The Effect of Ethical Leadership and Quiet Ego on Work Engagement and the Mediating Role of Compassion Satisfaction. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 2521. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.692116

Search via ReFindit


Campbell, E., & Bray, N. (2018). Two sides of the same coin? Analysis of faculty and administrators’ perspectives on governance. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 42(12), 893-907. https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2017.1374220

Search via ReFindit


Carson, O. M., Laird, E. A., Reid, B. B., Deeny, P. G., & McGarvey, H. E. (2018). Enhancing teamwork using a creativity-focussed learning intervention for undergraduate nursing students-a pilot study. Nurse Education in Practice, 30, 20-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2018.02.008

Search via ReFindit


Christensen-Salem, A., Walumbwa, F. O., Babalola, M. T., Guo, L., & Misati, E. (2021). A multilevel analysis of the relationship between ethical leadership and ostracism: The roles of relational climate, employee mindfulness, and work unit structure. Journal of Business Ethics, 171(3), 619-638. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04424-5

Search via ReFindit


Da Silva, A. B. (2016). Action learning: lecturers, learners, and managers at the Center of Management Education. Human Centered Management in Executive Education, 219. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137555410_13

Search via ReFindit


Dietz, C., Zacher, H., Scheel, T., Otto, K., & Rigotti, T. (2020). Leaders as role models: Effects of leader presenteeism on employee presenteeism and sick leave. Work & Stress, 34(3), 300-322. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2020.1728420

Search via ReFindit


Durksen, T. L., & Klassen, R. M. (2018). The development of a situational judgement test of personal attributes for quality teaching in rural and remote Australia. The Australian Educational Researcher, 45(2), 255-276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-017-0248-5

Search via ReFindit


Fatehi, K., & Choi, J. (2019). Managerial Leadership and Motivation in an International Context. In International Business Management (pp. 145-189). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-96622-9_5

Search via ReFindit


Foltz-Ramos, K., Fusco, N. M., & Paige, J. B. (2021). Saving patient x: A quasi-experimental study of teamwork and performance in simulation following an interprofessional escape room. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 1-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33587007/

Search via ReFindit


Fox, S., Gaboury, I., Chiocchio, F., & Vachon, B. (2021). Communication and interprofessional collaboration in primary care: from ideal to reality in practice. Health communication, 36(2), 125-135. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2019.1666499

Search via ReFindit


Gadelshina, G. (2016). Discursive leadership in technological change. Newcastle University. https://theses.ncl.ac.uk/jspui/handle/10443/3187

Search via ReFindit


Getie, A. S. (2020). Factors affecting the attitudes of students towards learning English as a foreign language. Cogent Education, 7(1), 1738184, https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186x.2020.1738184

Search via ReFindit


Giudici, M., & Filimonau, V. (2019). Exploring the linkages between managerial leadership, communication and teamwork in successful event delivery. Tourism Management Perspectives, 32, 100558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2019.100558

Search via ReFindit


Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/a-primer-on-partial-least-squares-structural-equation-modeling-pls-sem/book244583

Search via ReFindit


Hernández-López, L., García-Almeida, D. J., Ballesteros-Rodríguez, J. L., & De Saá-Pérez, P. (2016). Students' perceptions of the lecturer's role in management education: Knowledge acquisition and competence development. The International Journal of Management Education, 14(3), 411-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2016.10.001

Search via ReFindit


Husain, U., Javed, S., & Araimi, A. S. Al. (2021). A Study of Foreign Direct Investment on Manufacturing Industries in Sultanate of Oman. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 9(3), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3696

Search via ReFindit


Javed, S., Malik, A., & Alharbi, M. M. H. (2020). The relevance of leadership styles and Islamic work ethics in managerial effectiveness. PSU Research Review, 4(3), 189–207. https://doi.org/10.1108/prr-03-2019-0007

Search via ReFindit


Kerse, G. (2021). A leader indeed is a leader in deed: The relationship of ethical leadership, person–organization fit, organizational trust, and extra-role service behavior. Journal of Management & Organization, 27(3), 601-620. https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2019.4

Search via ReFindit


Khalilzadeh, S., & Khodi, A. (2021). Teachers’ personality traits and students’ motivation: A structural equation modelling analysis. Current Psychology, 40(4), 1635-1650. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-0064-8

Search via ReFindit


Khan, N. A., Khan, A. N., Moin, M. F., & Pitafi, A. H. (2021). A trail of chaos: how psychopathic leadership influence employee satisfaction and turnover intention via self-efficacy in tourism enterprises. Journal of Leisure Research, 52(3), 347-369. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2020.1785359

Search via ReFindit


King, K. A., Vaiman, V. (2019). Enabling effective talent management through a macro-contingent approach: A framework for research and practice. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 22(3), 194–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2019.04.005

Search via ReFindit


Lakkala, S., Turunen, T. A., Kangas, H., Pulju, M., Kuukasjärvi, U., & Autti, H. (2017). Learning inter-professional teamwork during university studies: A case study of student-teachers’ and social work students’ shared professional experiences. Journal of Education for Teaching, 43(4), 414-426. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2017.1342051

Search via ReFindit


Lau, K. H., & Jin, Q. (2019). Chinese students’ group work performance: does team personality composition matter?. Education+ Training. https://doi.org/10.1108/et-06-2018-0141

Search via ReFindit


Leung, A. N. M., Wong, N., & Farver, J. M. (2018). Cyberbullying in Hong Kong Chinese students: Life satisfaction, and the moderating role of friendship qualities on cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. Personality and Individual Differences, 133, 7-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.07.016

Search via ReFindit


Lou, W., Zhao, Y., Chen, Y., & Zhang, J. (2018). Research or management? An investigation of the impact of leadership roles on the research performance of academic administrators. Scientometrics, 117(1), 191-209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2842-3

Search via ReFindit


Mahmoud, Al-Sayed Al-Hadari (2014). The Impact of ethical leadership on supporting and promoting organizational confidence, An applied study on governmental hospitals in Taif city. Contemporary Commercial Research Journal, College of Commerce, Sohag University, 29(2), 1-60. https://www.ksau-hs.edu.sa/English/ResearchAndStudies/Pages/urpsearch.aspx

Search via ReFindit


Manoj, K.B.A. (2016). Human relations theory (Elton Mayo). https://polticsmania.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/humanrelation-theory-elton-mayo.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Maqbool, R., Sudong, Y., Manzoor, N., & Rashid, Y. (2017). The impact of emotional intelligence, project managers’ competencies, and transformational leadership on project success: An empirical perspective. Project Management Journal, 48(3), 58-75. https://doi.org/10.1177/875697281704800304

Search via ReFindit


Marquardt, D. J., Casper, W. J., & Kuenzi, M. (2021). Leader goal orientation and ethical leadership: a socio-cognitive approach of the impact of leader goal-oriented behavior on employee unethical behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 172(3), 545-561. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04524-2

Search via ReFindit


Mergen, A., & Ozbilgin, M. F. (2021). Understanding the followers of toxic leaders: Toxic illusion and personal uncertainty. International Journal of Management Reviews, 23(1), 45-63. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12240

Search via ReFindit


Nauman, S., Fatima, T. & Haq, I. U. (2018). Does despotic leadership harm employee family life: exploring the effects of emotional exhaustion and anxiety? Frontiers in psychology, 9, 601. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00601

Search via ReFindit


Nwangwu, C. (2017). School climate and educational management. Lagos, Amfitop Books. https://www.ijern.com/journal/2020/March-2020/03.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Omodan, B. I., Tsotetsi, C. T., & Dube, B. (2020). Analysis of human relations theory of management: A quest to re-enact people’s management towards peace in university system. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 18, 10. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v18i0.1184

Search via ReFindit


Osman, Z. (2020). Indirect Relationship among leadership styles, self-efficacy and academic employees’ performance in Malaysian Online distance learning higher education institutions. Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(8), 1093-1104. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v10-i8/7717

Search via ReFindit


Pahang N, Mahdioun R, Yarigholi B. (2017). Investigating the quality of schools and identifying related affecting factors: A mixed method research. Journal of School Administration, 5(1), 173-193. http://ijds.org/Volume6/IJDSv6p115-134Wao320.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Rahbi, D. A., Khalid, K., & Khan, M. (2017). The effects of leadership styles on team motivation. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 16(3). https://www.abacademies.org/articles/The-effects-of-leadership-styles-1939-6104-16-3-113.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Rice, S., Richardson, P. W., & Watt, H. M. G. (2017). Hard-to-staff Australian schools: How can we ensure that all students have access to quality teachers? In T. Bentley and G. C. Savage (Eds.), Educating Australia: Challenges for the decade ahead (Chapter 17). Melbourne, VIC: Melbourne University Publishing (Kindle Edition). https://minerva-access.unimelb.edu.au/handle/11343/171285

Search via ReFindit


Robert, V., & Vandenberghe, C. (2021). Laissez-faire leadership and affective commitment: The roles of leader-member exchange and subordinate relational self-concept. Journal of Business and Psychology, 36(4), 533-551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-020-09700-9

Search via ReFindit


Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). ResearchMet hods for Business a skill - Building Approach’. New Delhi: Wiley. ,+7th+Edition-p-9781119266846 https://www.wiley.com/en-ie/Research+Methods+For+Business:+A+Skill+Building+Approach

Search via ReFindit


Shibru, S., Bibiso, M., & Ousman, K. (2017). Middle Level Managers' Quality of Leadership and Good Governance, and Organizational Performance of Wolaita Sodo University. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(4), 55-62. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1133038.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Sidrat, S., & Frikha, M. A. (2018). Impact of the qualities of the manager and type of university on the development of the entrepreneurial university. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 29(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hitech.2018.04.003

Search via ReFindit


Visone, J. D. (2018). Empowerment through a teacher leadership academy. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning https://doi.org/10.1108/jrit-08-2018-0019

Search via ReFindit


Voogt, J. M., Pieters, J. M., & Handelzalts, A. (2016). Teacher collaboration in curriculum design teams: Effects, mechanisms, and conditions. Educational Research and Evaluation, 22(3-4), 121-140. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315123431-2

Search via ReFindit


Wang, Z., Xing, L., Xu, H., & Hannah, S. T. (2021). Not all followers socially learn from ethical leaders: The roles of followers’ moral identity and leader identification in the ethical leadership process. Journal of Business Ethics, 170(3), 449-469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-019-04353-y

Search via ReFindit


Whang, N. Y. (2021). The Virtue of School Leadership: Three Paths to Fulfilling Value Forms. SAGE Open, 11(1), 21582440211006136. https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211006136

Search via ReFindit


Yacoub, M. (2016). The influence of classical and human relations approaches in management today, a critical evaluation. Management Theories and Philosophies Module: University of South Wales. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311949526

Search via ReFindit


Yam, K. C., Reynolds, S. J., Zhang, P., & Su, R. (2021). The unintended consequences of empowering leadership: Increased deviance for some followers. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-021-04917-x

Search via ReFindit


Young, K. A., Hassan, S., & Hatmaker, D. M. (2021). Towards understanding workplace incivility: gender, ethical leadership and personal control. Public Management Review, 23(1), 31-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2019.1665701

Search via ReFindit


Zaim, H., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2021). Ethical leadership, effectiveness and team performance: An Islamic perspective. Middle East Journal of Management, 8(1), 42-66. https://doi.org/10.1504/mejm.2021.111991

Search via ReFindit


Zee, M., & Koomen, H. M. (2017). Similarities and dissimilarities between teachers' and students' relationship views in upper elementary school: The role of personal teacher and student attributes. Journal of School Psychology, 64, 43-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2017.04.007

Search via ReFindit