Received: 2021-03-25  |  Accepted: 2021-05-05  |  Published: 2021-06-30

Title

Borrowing for health, sustainability, credit card use and ownership: a study of 74 countries


Abstract

With the rising cost of healthcare, most households are resorting to out-of-pocket financing or borrowing to finance the high cost of health care. Intuitively, healthcare's rising cost is a global concern and is subject to a thorough economic debate. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3 focuses on health care financing for all ages to promote everyone's healthy lifestyle. There are two objectives of this study, and these are as follows: (1) Examine the relationship between borrowing for health or medical purposes and credit card use and ownership, and (2) Explore the significant gender differences concerning borrowing for health or medical purposes. Data for this study was collected from the Global Findex Database and analyzed using the Eviews8 and Microsoft Excel software. The findings from this study confirmed that borrowing for health or medical purposes, primary education, or less (% age 15+) has a statistically significant impact on credit card ownership and usage in high-income countries. There was no relationship of this nature evident in the case of low-income countries. There are significant differences between borrowing for health or medical reasons between males and females in Austria and Lithuania. Both Austria and Lithuania are high-income countries, but in the case of low-income countries, significant gender differences were found for Madagascar and Nepal. This study is timely and has contributed immensely to the existing literature.


Keywords

healthcare, rising cost, low-income countries, high-income countries


JEL classifications

I12 , I18 , I38


URI

http://jssidoi.org/jesi/article/844


DOI


Pages

622-640


Funding


This is an open access issue and all published articles are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Authors

Naidu, Suwastika
University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji https://www.usp.ac.fj
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Zhao, Fang
Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom https://www.staffs.ac.uk
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Pandaram, Atishwar
University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji https://www.usp.ac.fj
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Chand, Anand
University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji https://www.usp.ac.fj
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Patel, Arvind
University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji https://www.usp.ac.fj
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Journal title

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues

Volume

8


Number

4


Issue date

June 2021


Issue DOI


ISSN

ISSN 2345-0282 (online)


Publisher

VšĮ Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, Vilnius, Lithuania

Cited

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References