ESC
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Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues Open Access Q1
Scopus - coverage starting with 2017 material
Received: 2019-09-23  |  Accepted: 2020-03-22  |  Published: 2020-06-30

Title

Analysis of determinants of Indonesian agricultural exports


Abstract

This paper analyses determinants of agricultural exports and imports from Indonesia, including a set of demand and supply factors capturing effects of income, market size, prices, tariffs, exchange rates and variables related to logistics, competitiveness, trade policy, and innovation. A specific focus is on trade creation and diversion effects possibly arising as Indonesia experienced a deep liberalization of markets through the implementation of multiple Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). A gravity model helps to analyze the determinants of trade and the impacts of the various trade agreements, applied to two categories of agricultural exports: raw goods and food. The dataset comprises 50 countries with data on exports and imports from 2007 until 2017. The results find trade creation effects for both categories, with larger effects in exports within agricultural raw goods, and higher trade creation effects through imports in food. Indonesia also experienced trade expansion with non-free trade partners, suggesting that demand variables (e.g., income, market size, sophistication) are a more critical driver of growth rather than agreements. Price factors affect agricultural goods, with food products experiencing elastic price demand, while raw goods are affected by prices and exchange rate. Gains in competitiveness, logistics performance, and innovation is supporting agricultural exports (imports as well), although Indonesia is behind most of its trade partners. The current implementation of the FTA should be critically evaluated concerning food products as imports have expanded more rapidly than exports, and domestic goods may have experienced pressure from liberalization.


Keywords

agricultural trade, gravity model, trade creation and trade diversion effects, GMM


JEL classifications

C23 , F10 , F14


URI

http://jssidoi.org/jesi/article/547


DOI


Pages

2676-2695


Funding

This research was supported by a research Grant by Universitas Airlangga’s 2019 research and innovation programme, Indonesia

This is an open access issue and all published articles are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Authors

Sugiharti, Lilik
Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia http://www.unair.ac.id
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Purwono, Rudi
Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia http://www.unair.ac.id
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Esquivias Padilla, Miguel Angel
Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia http://www.unair.ac.id
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Journal title

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues

Volume

7


Number

4


Issue date

June 2020


Issue DOI


ISSN

ISSN 2345-0282 (online)


Publisher

VšĮ Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, Vilnius, Lithuania

Cited

Google Scholar

Article views & downloads

HTML views: 304  |  PDF downloads: 101

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