ESC
Web of Science
Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues Open Access
Scopus - coverage starting with 2017 material
Received: 2017-03-17  |  Accepted: 2017-06-15  |  Published: 2017-09-29

Title

Towards sustainable business relationships: ratification doctrine in the case of unauthorised agency


Abstract

Each contemporary economic system is based on the principle of work sharing in creation and distribution of goods and services, the legal reflection of which is the institution of agency. In business, unauthorised agency, i.e. cases when an agent acts without having authority or exceeding it, is particularly often. Though the principal usually is not legally bound by actions of such an unauthorised agent, but in fact legal acts of each country provide for exceptions from this rule. One of them is the ratification doctrine, which means that the principal can ratify the agent’s unauthorised actions. This article analyses, by applying the comparative method, in what cases and under what procedure the ratification rule can be applied and what legal consequences it creates. A conclusion is made that the ratification doctrine is an efficient means of implementation of interests and defence of infringed rights not only of the principal, but also of other persons involved in the agency relationship, which should not be subject to any form requirements, especially in business relationships.


Keywords

ratification doctrine, unauthorised agency, apparent authority, agent, falsus procurator, sustainable business


JEL classifications

K12 , K20


URI

http://jssidoi.org/jesi/article/134


DOI


HAL


Pages

72-90


This is an open access issue and all published articles are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Authors

Jurkevičius, Vaidas
Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania https://www.mruni.eu
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Bublienė, Raimonda
Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania https://www.mruni.eu
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania http://www.vgtu.lt
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Journal title

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues

Volume

5


Number

1


Issue date

September 2017


Issue DOI


ISSN

ISSN 2345-0282 (online)


Publisher

VšĮ Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, Vilnius, Lithuania

Cited

Google Scholar

Article views & downloads

HTML views: 413  |  PDF downloads: 248

References


AB "Pamūšio linai" v. A. V. 2003. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-252/2003.

Search via ReFindit


A. U. v. UAB "Druskininkų autobusų parkas". 2001. Vilnius Regional Court. Case No. 2A-2002-275/2011. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=3016c138-09e7-43de-aa4d-cda672ac009d

Search via ReFindit


Bennett, H. 2006. Agency in the Principles of European Contract Law and the Unidroit Principles of International Commercial Contracts (2004), Uniform Law Review 11: 771-793. https://doi.org/10.1093/ulr/11.4.771

Search via ReFindit


Bocken, N.M.P.; Short, S.W.; Rana, P.; Evans S. 2014. A Literature and Practice Review to Develop Sustainable Business Model Archetypes, Journal of Cleaner Production 65: 42-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.039

Search via ReFindit


Bolton Partner Ltd v. Lanbert. 1889. 41 Ch D295.

Search via ReFindit


Boons, F.; Lüdeke-Freund, F.; 2013. Business Models for Sustainable Innovation: State-of-the-art and Steps Towards a Research Agenda, Journal of Cleaner Production 45: 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.07.007

Search via ReFindit


Busch, D. 2009. Unauthorised agency in Dutch law, in Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. (Ed.). The unauthorised agent: perspectives from European and comparative law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 136-182.

Search via ReFindit


Busch, D.; Hondius, E.; Van Kooten, H.J.; Schelhaas, H.N.; Schrama, W.M. 2002. Principles of European contract law and Dutch law. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Search via ReFindit


Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. 2009a. Comparative law evaluation, in Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. (Ed.). The unauthorised agent: perspectives from European and comparative law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 385-438.

Search via ReFindit


Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. 2009b. Introduction, in Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. (Ed.). The unauthorised agent: perspectives from European and comparative law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-14.

Search via ReFindit


Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. 2009c. Unauthorized Agency, European Review of Private Law 17(6): 967-974. Available on the Internet: https://www.kluwerlawonline.com/abstract.php?area=Journals&id=ERPL2009061

Search via ReFindit


Bisso, J. C.; Choi, A. H. 2008. Optimal Agency Contracts: The Effect of Vicarious Liability and Judicial Error, International Review of Law and Economic 28(3): 166-174. Available on the Internet: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.irle.2008.06.005

Search via ReFindit


Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania. 2000. Valstybės žinios No. 74-2262. Available on the Internet: https://eseimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/TAIS.404614?jfwid=p60bc0tl1

Search via ReFindit


Čirjevskis, A. 2017. Acquisition based dynamic capabilities and reinvention of business models: bridging two perspectives together, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 4(4): 516-525. https://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2017.4.4(9)

Search via ReFindit


DeMott, D. A. 2009a. Ratification: Useful But Uneven, European Review of Private Law 17(6): 987-1002. Available on the Internet: https://www.kluwerlawonline.com/abstract.php?area=Journals&id=ERPL2009063

Search via ReFindit


DeMott, D. A. 2009b. The restatement (third) of agency in US law, in Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. (Ed.). The unauthorised agent: perspectives from European and comparative law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 219-244.

Search via ReFindit


Dyllick, T.; Muff, K. 2016. Clarifying the Meaning of Sustainable Business: Introducing a Typology from Business-as-Usual to True Business Sustainability, Organization & Environment 29(2): 156-174. https://doi.org/10.1177/1086026615575176

Search via ReFindit


E. D. v. A. D., A. G., V. J., Association Sahadža joga Lietuva. 2015. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-218-695/2015. Available on the Internet: . http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=30014e6f-9697-4760-b66b-5019750a930f

Search via ReFindit


G. A. v. AB "Alytaus tekstilė". 2004. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-353/2004.

Search via ReFindit


George Blanche v. Boutonnet et autres. 1931. Cass Req 9-6-1931, S 1931, 1, 312.

Search via ReFindit


G. K. v. DNSB "Upė". 2011. Klaipėda Regional Court. Case No. 2A-1884-370/2011. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=a142e756-61ba-45b8-8648-6bc0b29870d8

Search via ReFindit


Hilkevics, S.; Hilkevics, A. 2017. The comparative analysis of technology transfer models, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 4(4): 540-558. https://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2017.4.4(11)

Search via ReFindit


International Institute for the Unification of Private Law. 1983. Convention on Agency in the International Sale of Goods. Available on the Internet: http://www.unidroit.org/ol-agency/ol-agency-en

Search via ReFindit


International Institute for the Unification of Private Law. 2010. UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts. Available on the Internet: http://www.unidroit.org/english/principles/contracts/principles2010/integralversionprinciples2010-e.pdf

Search via ReFindit


I. T. (G.) v. ŽŪB "Pavasaris". 2004. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-417/2004.

Search via ReFindit


J. G. v. L. S. 2010. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-461/2010. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=799669b2-cd9a-48ba-9989-0e178a15baed

Search via ReFindit


Jefimovs, N. 2017. Towards conflicts’ settlement: development of the meaning of mediation in the legal doctrine, Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues 6(4): 665-672. https://doi.org/10.9770/jssi.2017.6.4(11)

Search via ReFindit


K. J. v. bankrupt UAB "Bendra idėja", R. J. 2012. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-378/2012. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=0f121113-a453-4892-b5fc-95113a1dce1a

Search via ReFindit


Lando, O.; Beale, H. 2000. Principles of European contract law. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Search via ReFindit


Ministry of Health of the Republic of Lithuania v. UAB "Kraujo donorystės centras", notary public R. S. of Office No. 1 of Notary Public of the Kaunas district. 2012. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-217/2012. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=b515fd34-fb9d-4503-a9af-e021fa15e175

Search via ReFindit


Monni, S.; Novelli, G.; Pera, L.; Realini, A. 2017. Workers’ buyout: the Italian experience, 1986-2016, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 4(4): 526-539. https://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2017.4.4(10)

Search via ReFindit


Rajnoha, R.; Lesníková, P. 2016. Strategic Performance Management System and Corporate Sustainability Concept - Specific Parametres in Slovak Enterprises, Journal of Competitiveness 8(3): 107 – 124. https://doi.org./10.7441/joc.2016.03.07

Search via ReFindit


Ramirent Baltic AS v. UAB "Nekilnojamojo turto valdymas". 2012. Vilnius Regional Court. Case No. 2A-1796-464/2012. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=7ca78f21-6644-404c-8321-a1f13202b19e

Search via ReFindit


Reynolds, F. 2009. Apparent Authority, European Review of Private Law 17(6): 975-985. Available on the Internet: https://www.kluwerlawonline.com/abstract.php?area=Journals&id=ERPL2009062

Search via ReFindit


R. Z. v. BUAB "Metoil". 2016. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-68-611/2016. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=8f37e4a7-dd78-482e-bbba-74adfea5edbe

Search via ReFindit


Sainter, S. 2009. Unauthorised agency in French law, in Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. (Ed.). The unauthorised agent: perspectives from European and comparative law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 17-60.

Search via ReFindit


Samoy, I. 2009. Unauthorised agency in Belgian law, in Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. (Ed.). The unauthorised agent: perspectives from European and comparative law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 61-99.

Search via ReFindit


S. A. v. the 159th Association of Apartment Owners of the city of Kaunas. 2002. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-216/2002.

Search via ReFindit


Schmidt-Kessel, M.; Baide, A. 2009. Unauthorised agency in German law, in Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. (Ed.). The unauthorised agent: perspectives from European and comparative law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 100-135.

Search via ReFindit


S. D. v. A. K. Č. turizmo firma, A. M. B. 2005. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-569/2005.

Search via ReFindit


Smits, J. M. 2007. Elgar encyclopedia of comparative law. Cheltenham: The Berkeley Economic Press.

Search via ReFindit


Stoljar, S. J. 1961. The law of agency: its history and present principles. Sweet & Maxwell.

Search via ReFindit


Sukhdev, P. 2012. Corporation 2020. Transforming business for tomorrow’s world. Washington: Island.

Search via ReFindit


Tan, Ch-H. 2009. Unauthorised agency in English law, in Busch, D.; Macgregor, L. J. (Ed.). The unauthorised agent: perspectives from European and comparative law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 185-218.

Search via ReFindit


Tauragė District Board v. V. B., G. B. 2001. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-276/2001.

Search via ReFindit


Teletov, A.; Nagornyi, Y.; Letunovska, N.; Shevliuga, O. 2017. Competitive and sustainable technological development: focus on business enterprises, Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues 6(3): 491-500. https://doi.org/10.9770/jssi.2017.6.3(13)

Search via ReFindit


T. Ž. v. sole proprietorship of J. V. V. 2007. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-147/2007. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=d76264b6-d042-464e-a6f4-b279ccaaed7b

Search via ReFindit


UAB "Dausa" v. AB "Turto bankas", UAB "Rožinis flamingas". 2004. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-203/2004.

Search via ReFindit


UAB "Kreivė" v. UAB "Orgreitos transportas". 2011. Supreme Court of Lithuania Case. No. 3K-3-173/2011. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=a0ebbe96-f314-444f-a651-e671ff1c4184

Search via ReFindit


UAB "Mularda" v. UAB "Kauno Platanas". 2006. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-243/2006. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=157e9674-0ef1-4358-8918-5f1bf8633594

Search via ReFindit


UAB "Oriola Vilnius" v. PĮ Rasmutės Manelienės stomatologinė klinika. 2001. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. 3K-3-758/2001.

Search via ReFindit


UAB "Tristana" v. D. R. 2016. Supreme Court of Lithuania. Case No. e3K-3-539-706/2016. Available on the Internet: http://liteko.teismai.lt/viesasprendimupaieska/tekstas.aspx?id=efaaa651-97b3-4969-875e-60c66ca2f586

Search via ReFindit


Vogenauer, S.; Kleinheisterkamp, J. 2009. Commentary on the Unidroit principles of international commercial contracts (PICC). New York: Oxford University Press.

Search via ReFindit