Received: 2019-05-18  |  Accepted: 2019-09-25  |  Published: 2019-12-15

Title

Multiple discrimination and inequality: a comparative analysis of the European Courts case law in the context of sustainable business development


Abstract

In the light of social and economic development multidimensional reality and inequality, the concept of multiple discrimination plays an important role in ensuring to achieve gender equality to stimulate employment and sustainability of business. Such situations in which a person is discriminated on several grounds emerge multiple discrimination. The multiple discrimination complexity redress gender intersectional inequality towards sustainable development and remains as a key challenge. The difficulty with the multiple and intersectional discrimination lies in the lack of awareness and consistent definition of multiple discrimination, patchy legal framework of antidiscrimination law and adequate judicial response. Therefore, one of Sustainable Development Goals encourage achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls to ensure equality and non-discrimination, women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life. This article is deemed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the multiple, intersectional discrimination based on complex inequality and discusses case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and European Court of Human Rights from a comparative perspective. Discuss the multiple discrimination interrelationship between the human and fundamental rights framework and the Sustainable Development Goals. A conclusion is made that recognition of the multiple, intersectional discrimination will be an efficient mean for further sustainable business development and combine all ground of discrimination especially in the case of complex inequality at the area of employment.


Keywords

multiple discrimination, anti-discrimination law, sustainable development, employment


JEL classifications

K10 , K31 , K38


URI

http://jssidoi.org/jesi/article/434


DOI


Pages

1246-1257


Funding


This is an open access issue and all published articles are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Authors

Bublienė, Raimonda
Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania https://www.mruni.eu
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Jurkevičius, Vaidas
Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania https://www.mruni.eu
Articles by this author in: CrossRef |  Google Scholar

Journal title

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues

Volume

7


Number

2


Issue date

December 2019


Issue DOI


ISSN

ISSN 2345-0282 (online)


Publisher

VšĮ Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, Vilnius, Lithuania

Cited

Google Scholar

Article views & downloads

HTML views: 1219  |  PDF downloads: 530

References


Asma Bougnaoui v. Micropole SA (2017) C-188/15.

Search via ReFindit


Carrera, S., Guild, E., Vosyliūtė, L, & Bard, P. 2017. Towards a Comprehensive EU Protection System for Minorities. Retrieved from 596802_EN.pdf http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/596802/IPOL_STU(2017)

Search via ReFindit


CEDAW. 2010. General Recommendation No. 28 on the Core Obligations of States Parties under Article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Retrieved from https://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/CEDAW-C-2010-47-GC2.pdf

Search via ReFindit


Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. 2012. Resolution 1887 multiple discrimination against Muslim women in Europe: for equal opportunities. Retrieved from http://www.assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=18921&lang=en

Search via ReFindit


Council of Europe. 1950. European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Retrieved from https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf

Search via ReFindit


European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia. 2006. Muslims in the European Union - Discrimination and Islamophobia. Austria: Printer MANZ CROSSMEDIA GmbH & Co KG.

Search via ReFindit


European Parliament and Council. 2006. Directive 2006/54/EC on the implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation (recast). Retrieved from http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2006/54/oj

Search via ReFindit


European Parliament. 2016. Resolution on application of Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (‘Employment Equality Directive’). Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2016-0360_EN.html

Search via ReFindit


European Parliament. 2016. Resolution on poverty: a gender perspective. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2016-0235_EN.html

Search via ReFindit


European Parliament. 2016. Resolution on refugees: social inclusion and integration into the labour market. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2016-0297_EN.html

Search via ReFindit


European Parliament. 2016. Resolution on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, with special regard to the Concluding Observations of the UN CRPD Committee. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2016-0318_EN.html

Search via ReFindit


European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. 2017. Fundamental Rights Report 2017 FRA Opinions. Retrieved from https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/fra-2017-fundamental-rights-report-2017-opinions_en.pdf

Search via ReFindit


European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. 2018. Handbook on European non-discrimination law. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2811/58933

Search via ReFindit


European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. 2019. Fundamental Rights Report 2019. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2811/903190

Search via ReFindit


European Union Commission. 2008. Proposal for a Council Directive on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52008PC0426

Search via ReFindit


European Union Council. 2000. Directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. Retrieved from http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2000/43/oj

Search via ReFindit


European Union Council. 2000. Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2000/78/oj

Search via ReFindit


Eurostat. 2019. Sustainable development in the European Union - Monitoring report on progress towards the SDGs in an EU context. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2785/4526

Search via ReFindit


Eweida and Others v. The United Kingdom (2013) 48420/10, 59842/10, 51671/10, 36516/10.

Search via ReFindit


F.A. v. France (2018) CCPR/c/123/D/2662/2015.

Search via ReFindit


Miriana Hebbadj v. France, (2018) CCPR/C/123/D/2807/2016.

Search via ReFindit


Opinion of Advocate General Eleanor V. E. Sharpston (2016) in Case C‑188/15.

Search via ReFindit


Opinion of Advocate General Juliane Kokott (2016) in Case C-157/15.

Search via ReFindit


Samira Achbita v. G4S Secure Solutions NV (2017) C-157/15.

Search via ReFindit


Schouten, M.J. 2019. Undoing gender inequalities: insights from the Portuguese perspective. Insights into Regional Development, (2), 85-98. https://doi.org/10.9770/ird.2019.1.2(1)

Search via ReFindit


Sonia Yaker v. France (2018) CCPR/C/123/D/2747/2016.

Search via ReFindit


Timishev v. Russia (2005) 55762/00, 55974/00.

Search via ReFindit


United Nations General Assembly. 1966. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Retrieved from https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%20999/volume-999-i-14668-english.pdf

Search via ReFindit


United Nations General Assembly. 1979. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Retrieved from https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1981/09/19810903%2005-18%20AM/Ch_IV_8p.pdf

Search via ReFindit


United Nations General Assembly. 2006. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/convention/convoptprot-e.pdf

Search via ReFindit


United Nations General Assembly. 2015. Resolution transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E

Search via ReFindit


Vakulenko, A. 2007. Islamic Headscarves and the European Convention on Human Rights: An Intersectional Perspective. Social & Legal Studies, 16(2): 183-199.

Search via ReFindit


Xenidis, R. 2018. Multiple Discrimination in EU Anti-Discrimination Law: Towards Redressing Complex Inequality? in Belavusau, U.; Henrard, K. (Ed.). EU Anti-Discrimination Law Beyond Gender. Oxford: Hart, 41-74. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781509915033

Search via ReFindit